The gingiva (gum) is the protective type of skin that is closely adapted to the necks of the teeth and covers the bone holding the roots of the teeth. There is a shallow ditch like space that separates the margin of the normal gingiva from the tooth surface. This space is 2mm in depth and is called gingival sulcus. It is one of the places that a dentist will carefully examine to detect the presence of gum disease. Healthy gingiva is usually coral pink, but may contain physiologic pigmentation. In general, darker persons have darker gingiva; but in some individuals there can be excess of pigments that give the gingiva a brownish tinge.
Healthy gingiva usually has a colour that has been described as "coral pink." Other colours like red, white, and blue can signify inflammation (gingivitis) or pathology. Although the text book colour of gingiva is "coral pink", normal racial pigmentation makes the gingiva appear darker. Because the colour of gingiva varies due to racial pigmentation - uniformity of colour is more important than the underlying colour itself.
Healthy gingiva has a smooth arcuate or scalloped appearance around each tooth. Healthy gingiva fills and fits each interdental space, unlike the swollen gingiva papilla seen in gingivitis or the empty interdental embrasure seen in periodontal disease. Healthy gums hold tight to each tooth in that the gingival surface narrows to "knife-edge" thin at the free gingival margin. On the other hand, inflamed gums have a "puffy" or "rolled" margin.
Healthy gingiva has a firm texture that is resistant to movement, and the surface texture often exhibits surface stippling(Orange peel appearance). Unhealthy gingiva, on the other hand, is often swollen and mushy.
Healthy gums usually have no reaction to normal disturbance such as brushing or periodontal probing. Unhealthy gums on the other hand will show bleeding on probing (BOP) and/or purulent exudate (pus)
Gum disease, is an infection of the gums caused by bacteria. These bacteria produce toxins that irritate the
gingiva, and also directly infiltrate into the gingiva causing them to become inflamed and bleed easily. The inflammation of the gingiva is
known as gingivitis. If the irritation persists, the gingiva separates from the tooth and form pockets. Plaque then forms within these pockets
and eventually destroys the gingiva and the
underlying bone. The teeth may then become loose and fall out or need to be removed. There are other factors that may contribute to gum diseases.
They are as follows:-
If long standing inflammation is the cause of bleeding, then removal of the source of bacteria will result in improvement of the situation. Proper maintenance of the teeth by the patient is more than sufficient. If the source is moderate to severe in collection, then professional help is required. Serious systemic problems might have to be treated to correct bleeding from these diseases. Repair of misaligned teeth or replacement of dental and orthodontic appliances may be recommended. Any other related illnesses or conditions should be treated.
Homeopathy will help in treating these cases
along with hygiene maintenance. The medicines is selected on the basis of the symptoms presented by the patient and causative factors with the help of miasmatic analysis.
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