It is a medical condition wherein body fat has accumulated in excess, to an extent that it may have negative health effects. People are usually considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), is over 30 kg/m2 - the range 25–30 kg/m2 is defined as overweight. The BMI is measured by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, although lower values are used in some Asian countries. The chances of some diseases and conditions, like cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, depression and certain types of cancer increase due to obesity.
Obesity is generally caused by a combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity and genetic susceptibility. For some people, heredity, endocrine disorders, medications or mental disorders can be a cause. Studies do not support the myth that obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism. Obese people have a greater energy expenditure than normal people due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.
Obesity can be prevented through a combination of personal choices and social changes. Changing the diet and exercising are the main therapies. The quality of the diet can be improved by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as those high in fat or sugars and by increasing the dietary fibre intake. Medicines can be used, along with a suitable diet, to reduce hunger or decrease fat absorption. If dieting, exercise, and medicines are ineffective, a gastric balloon or surgery may be performed to reduce the volume of the stomach or length of the intestines leading to hunger satiety earlier or a decreased ability to absorb nutrients from what is eaten.
It is a leading preventable cause of death in the world. In 2015, 600 million adults (12% of the population) and 100 million children were obese across 195 countries. Obesity is less common in men than in women. It is one of the most serious public health problems of the modern world and carries a stigma, although it was seen as a symbol of wealth and fertility in the past and in some parts of the world, it still is. From 2013, several medical societies, including the American Medical Association and the American Heart Association, started classifying obesity as a disease.
Lifestyle changes: Low calorie diet. Good physical activity is needed to maintain weight loss - walking, cycling and running are effective means of exercise to reduce body fat. Avoid a sedentary lifestyle. Avoid some of the effects of the environment of obesogenicity. Change the eating behaviour including the selection of what is eaten, controlling the size of the portion, avoid snacking between meals, have regular meals at the same time everyday to encourage satiety and substite sugar with artificial sweeteners.
Homeopathy: Homoeopathic remedies are prescribed by symptoms rather than conditions, as each case of a particular illness can manifest differently in different people. This means that homeopathic treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological condition. It can help in losing weight by improving digestion, elimination and metabolism.
Surgery: Bariatric surgery to reduce the size of the stomach.
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